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英译汉翻译15种技巧
来源:宁夏自治区外侨办  发布时间:2018-06-01  浏览次数:

1. amplification

amplification for the purpose of rhetoric or coherence(修辞性或连贯性增

I came to a garden of grottoes, pavilions and shapely rocks and trees.

我来到一个假山花园前,园中亭阁玲珑,山石嶙峋,树木葱茏。

Amplification by repetition (重复性增词)

Avoid using this computer inextreme cold, heat, dust or humidity.

不要在过冷,过热,灰尘过重,湿度过大的情况下使用此电脑。

2. omission

omitting the pronoun

pronouns are more frequently used in English than in Chinese. Therefore , when translated into Chinese, many English pronouns may be omitted so as to conform the rendering to the accustomed usage of Chinese expression.

For two weeks, he had been studying the house, looking atits rooms,its electric wiring, its bath and its garden.

两周以来,他一直注意观察房子的情况,查看各个房间,留心电线的走向,通道和花园的布局。

Omitting the article

Any substance is made up of atoms whether it is a solid, aliquid, or a gas.

任何物质,不论是固体,液体还是气体,都由原子组成。

3. division

Sometimes, an English sentence with a restrictive attributive clause is too long or too complicated for the translator to take as a single sentence. In this case, we may divide it into two or several parts, placing the attributive clause after the principle clause to conform to the Chinese usage, repeating the antecedent being modified.

Eg: They are striving for the ideal which is close to the heart of everyChinese and for which ,in the past, manyChinese have laid down their lives。

他们正在为实现一个理想而努力,这个理想是每个中国人所珍爱的,在过去,许多中国人为了这个理想而牺牲了自己的生命。

He managed to raise a crop of 200 miracle tomatoes that weighed up to two pounds each.

他种出了200个大得惊人的西红柿,每个重达两磅。

4. combination( combination in restrictive attributive clauses)

Pollution is a pressing problem which we must deal with.

污染是我们必须解决的一个迫切问题。

The people who worked for him lived in mortal fear of him.

在他手下工作的人对他怕得要死。

5. extension

the extension of meaning may be either from the specific to the general or from the concrete to the abstract, and vice versa.

It is more thantransient everydayness

.这远非一时的柴米油盐问题。(from the abstract to the concrete)

Americans love work, it is meat and drink to them

美国人热爱工作。对他们来说,工作就是乐趣。

6. substitution

the technique is used to replace the words of the original expression with Chinese synonyms or idioms according to different situations.

He was indeed a goodriddance

他还是不在的好。

The same is not true with a mortal illness.

如果是得了不治之症,情况就不一样了。

7. repetition

I seek but seek in vain.

寻寻觅觅,冷冷清清,凄凄惨惨戚戚。

You should help her since you have promised to do so.

你既然答应了要帮助她就应当帮助她。

8. conversion of word class

nouns converted into verbs

I think my little brother is a better teacher than I.

我认为我的小弟弟比我教得好。

Adjectives converted into verbs

Doctors have said that they are notsure they can save his life.

医生说他们不敢肯定能否救得了他的命。

9. conversion of grammatical function

converting attributive elements into independent sentences, adverbial clauses, etc.

This is an electrical method, which is most promising when the water is brackish.

这是一种电气方法。当水含盐时,它最有希望。

Nowadays it is understood that a dietwhich contains nothing harmfulmay result in serious disease if certain important elements are missing.

现在人们已经懂得,如果饮食中缺少了某些重要成分,即使食物不含有任何有害物质,也会引起严重疾病。

10. conversion of voice

Converting the passive voice into the active

Every moment of every day, energy is being transformed from one form into another.

每时每刻,能量都在由一种形式变为另一种形式。

Communications satellites are used forinternational live transmission throughout the world.

全世界都将通信卫星用于国际间的实况转播。

11.Convert from hypotactic to paratactic  Hypotactic VS Paratactic

He had a disconcerting habit of expressing contradictory ideas in rapid succession.

他有一种令人难堪的习惯:一会儿一个看法,自相矛盾,变化无常。

The present onslaught of vehicles poses a serious threat to urban life and pedestrian peace of mind.

车辆横冲直撞,严重地威胁着城市生活,路上行人无不提心吊胆。

12. conversion from impersonal to personal  Impersonal VS Personal  

The thick carpet killed the sound of my footsteps.

我走在厚厚的地毯上,一点儿脚步声也没有。

Excitement deprived me of all power of utterance.

我兴奋得说不出话来。

13. conversion from the abstract to concrete   Abstract VS Concrete

The absence of intelligence is an indication of satisfactory of developments

没有消息即表明有令人满意的进步。

A high degree of carelessness, pre-operative and post-operative, on the part of some of the hospital staff, took place.

医院某些医护人员在手术前后都非常粗心。

14. conversion from complex to simplex  Complex VS Simplex

Many man-made substances are replacing certain natural materials because either the quality of the natural product can not meet our ever-increasing requirement, or, more often , because the physical properties of the synthetic substance, which is the common name for man-made materials, have been chosen, and even emphasized, so that it would be of the greatest use in the fields in which it is to be applied.

人造材料通称为合成材料。许多人造材料正在代替某些天然材料,这或者是由于天然材料的数量不能满足日益增长的需要,或者是由于人们选择了合成材料的一些物理性质并加以突出而造成的。因此,合成材料在其应用领域讲具有极大的用途。

But for agriculture, man could not exist, nor could social production proceed.

没有农业,人类便不能生存,社会生存也就不能继续下去。

15. conversion from negative to positive

Affirmative in English, but negative in Chinese

He denied it to be the case.

他说事实不是这样

Negative in English, but affirmative in Chinese

The doubt was still unresolved after his repeated explanation

经他一再解释,疑团仍然存在。


 



  
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