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来源:宁夏自治区外侨办  发布时间:2018-06-01  浏览次数:

1. amplification

amplification for the purpose of rhetoric or coherence(修辞性或连贯性增

I came to a garden of grottoes, pavilions and shapely rocks and trees.


Amplification by repetition (重复性增词)

Avoid using this computer inextreme cold, heat, dust or humidity.


2. omission

omitting the pronoun

pronouns are more frequently used in English than in Chinese. Therefore , when translated into Chinese, many English pronouns may be omitted so as to conform the rendering to the accustomed usage of Chinese expression.

For two weeks, he had been studying the house, looking atits rooms,its electric wiring, its bath and its garden.


Omitting the article

Any substance is made up of atoms whether it is a solid, aliquid, or a gas.


3. division

Sometimes, an English sentence with a restrictive attributive clause is too long or too complicated for the translator to take as a single sentence. In this case, we may divide it into two or several parts, placing the attributive clause after the principle clause to conform to the Chinese usage, repeating the antecedent being modified.

Eg: They are striving for the ideal which is close to the heart of everyChinese and for which ,in the past, manyChinese have laid down their lives。


He managed to raise a crop of 200 miracle tomatoes that weighed up to two pounds each.


4. combination( combination in restrictive attributive clauses)

Pollution is a pressing problem which we must deal with.


The people who worked for him lived in mortal fear of him.


5. extension

the extension of meaning may be either from the specific to the general or from the concrete to the abstract, and vice versa.

It is more thantransient everydayness

.这远非一时的柴米油盐问题。(from the abstract to the concrete)

Americans love work, it is meat and drink to them


6. substitution

the technique is used to replace the words of the original expression with Chinese synonyms or idioms according to different situations.

He was indeed a goodriddance


The same is not true with a mortal illness.


7. repetition

I seek but seek in vain.


You should help her since you have promised to do so.


8. conversion of word class

nouns converted into verbs

I think my little brother is a better teacher than I.


Adjectives converted into verbs

Doctors have said that they are notsure they can save his life.


9. conversion of grammatical function

converting attributive elements into independent sentences, adverbial clauses, etc.

This is an electrical method, which is most promising when the water is brackish.


Nowadays it is understood that a dietwhich contains nothing harmfulmay result in serious disease if certain important elements are missing.


10. conversion of voice

Converting the passive voice into the active

Every moment of every day, energy is being transformed from one form into another.


Communications satellites are used forinternational live transmission throughout the world.


11.Convert from hypotactic to paratactic  Hypotactic VS Paratactic

He had a disconcerting habit of expressing contradictory ideas in rapid succession.


The present onslaught of vehicles poses a serious threat to urban life and pedestrian peace of mind.


12. conversion from impersonal to personal  Impersonal VS Personal  

The thick carpet killed the sound of my footsteps.


Excitement deprived me of all power of utterance.


13. conversion from the abstract to concrete   Abstract VS Concrete

The absence of intelligence is an indication of satisfactory of developments


A high degree of carelessness, pre-operative and post-operative, on the part of some of the hospital staff, took place.


14. conversion from complex to simplex  Complex VS Simplex

Many man-made substances are replacing certain natural materials because either the quality of the natural product can not meet our ever-increasing requirement, or, more often , because the physical properties of the synthetic substance, which is the common name for man-made materials, have been chosen, and even emphasized, so that it would be of the greatest use in the fields in which it is to be applied.


But for agriculture, man could not exist, nor could social production proceed.


15. conversion from negative to positive

Affirmative in English, but negative in Chinese

He denied it to be the case.


Negative in English, but affirmative in Chinese

The doubt was still unresolved after his repeated explanation



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